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  • br Limitation and strength br The recruitment outlet for


    5. Limitation and strength
    The recruitment outlet for the study was the palliative care clinic of a tertiary healthcare facility hence, only clinicians who were part of the palliative care team were included. Also, the study was conducted in one healthcare facility. This may have implications for generalization, hence, the use of the findings for generalization purpose should be done with caution. Despite these limitations, the study has highlighted varied factors acting as barriers to early detection of breast cancer, but all these centered-on patients’ and providers’ delays as well as deficiencies in breast cancer screening, diagnosis and treatment. These findings provide a good guide for clinicians and further researchers to identify areas to focus breast cancer prevention and early detection programs.
    6. Implication
    • A need to integrate breast cancer prevention and early detection into palliative care
    • A model to guide the CAY10683 of breast cancer prevention and early detection into palliative care is paramount
    • Advocacy among health professionals is required to influence breast cancer early detection, diagnosis and management
    Declaration of Competing Interest
    The authors declare no competing interests.
    The authors are grateful to all clinicians who participated in this study. Also, the study was supported by the University of KwaZulu-Natal College of Health Sciences Scholarship for postgraduate students.
    Anderson, B. O. (2014). UICC World Cancer Congress 2014: Global Breast Cancer Trends. Washington. Retrieved from: atoms/files/UICC41_Anderson-Benjamin-O.pdf.
    Bray, F., & Soerjomataram, I. (2015). The changing global burden of cancer: transitions in human development and implications for cancer prevention and control. Cancer: Disease Control Priorities, 3, 23–44.
    Retrieved from
    World Health Organization (2007a). Cancer control: Knowledge into action. WHO guide for effective programmes. Early detection. World Health Organization.
    World Health Organization (2007b). Early Detection: Cancer control: Knowledge into action. WHO guide for effective programmes; module 3. Geneva: World Health Organization.
    Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
    The Breast
    Original article
    Clinico-pathological characteristics among South African women with breast cancer receiving anti-retroviral therapy for HIV
    Boitumelo Phakathi a, b, *, Herbert Cubasch c, d, Sarah Nietz a, b, Caroline Dickens e, Therese Dix-Peek e, Maureen Joffe d, f, Alfred I. Neugut g, Judith Jacobson g, h, Raquel Duarte e, Paul Ruff d, e
    a Charlotte Maxeke Surgical Breast Unit, Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital, Jubilee Road, Johannesburg, 2196, South Africa
    b Department of Surgery, University of the Witwatersrand Faculty of Health Sciences, 7 York Road, Johannesburg, 2193, South Africa
    c Batho Pele Breast Unit, Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital, 26 Chris Hani Road, Diepkloof, Soweto, 1860, South Africa
    d Non-Communicable Diseases Research Division, Wits Health Consortium (PTY) Ltd, 31 Princess of Wales Building, Johannesburg, 2193, South Africa
    e Department of Medicine, University of Witwatersrand Faculty of Health Sciences, 7 York Road Johannesburg, South Africa
    f MRC Developmental Pathways to Health Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, University of Witwatersrand Faculty of Health Sciences, 7 York Road, Johannesburg, South Africa
    g Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Centre, Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, USA
    h Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, USA
    Article history:
    Breast cancer
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
    Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) 
    Purpose: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. South Africa has the largest global burden of HIV infection and the largest anti-retroviral treatment (ART) program. This study aimed to analyse the association of HIV and ART use with breast cancer clinico-pathological characteristics.
    Methods: Study participants were females, newly diagnosed from May 2015 through September 2017 with invasive breast cancer at two academic Surgical Breast Units in Johannesburg, South Africa at the Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital and Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital. We compared HIV-positive and HIV negative patients' demographic and clinical-pathological characteristics at the time of breast cancer diagnosis.